Tonwee

Antoinette Lydon

Tonwee is in the civil parish of Kilcummin. The civil Parish corresponds with the following Church of Ireland parish of Kilcummin, Galway West. In general, the civil parish and the Church of Ireland parish are the same as is the case in the Kilcummin Oughterard area.

Tonwee is in the Electoral Division of Oughterard, in Civil Parish of Kilcummin, in the Barony of Moycullen, in the County of Galway

Irish Form of Name:

Tóin Bhuidhe

Translation:

yellow bottom

Parish:  Kilcummin
View all place names in this civil parish.

Other Forms of the Name with the authority source (if provided) in italics.

Tonwee
Tóin Bhuidhe
Thanwee Boundary Surveyor
Tonebuy Barony Cess Book
Tonebuy County Map
Tonwee Rector of Kilcummin
Yellow Bass (Base) or bottom

Area:

Tonwee contains 66¾ acres all arable except about 20 acres of bog, a line road extends thro’ this townland from N. to S. There is a bridge on the northern boundary by which the above road crosses, also a quarry situated in the northern extremity of this townland – also a village close to its southern boundary.

Boundaries

Tonwee borders the following other townlands:

 Landlord:

Richard Martin Esq.

  • Martin (Ballynahinch)– A branch of the Anglo Norman family of Martin, one of the Tribes of Galway, was granted the O’Flaherty lands in the Connemara region in the mid 17th century. This family was a junior branch of the Martins of Ross and under the Acts of Settlement were granted vast estates in counties Galway, Mayo, Roscommon, Clare and Sligo. By a patent dated 1698 they were confirmed in the possession of their Connemara estate known as the Manor of Claremount by King William. The Westport Estate Papers document the sale of over 27,000 acres in the baronies of Moycullen and Ballynahinch by the trustees for the sale of Colonel John Browne’s estate to John Edwards for Richard Martin in 1699. The early generations of Martins lived at Birch Hall and Dangan, in the townland of Oranhill, parish of Rahoon, near Galway city. Richard Martin, better known as ‘Humanity Dick’, was the first member of the family to be reared as a Protestant. He was a famous duellist and founded the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Ballynahinch Castle was built in the centre of his estate. His son Thomas Martin died in 1847 during the Famine and Thomas’s only daughter and heir, Mary Laetita, inherited a heavily encumbered estate. She married her cousin, Arthur Gonne Bell, and died in New York in 1850. The Martin estates were offered for sale in two sections in 1849. Their property close to Galway town included Dangan, Corcullen, Bushypark and Killeen. Their Connemara estate was acquired by the Law Life Assurance Society in 1852, to whom it was heavily mortgaged. In 1853 the estate of almost 200,000 acres was surveyed by Thomas Colville Scott for a prospective buyer. Richard Martin, second son of Richard ‘Humanity Dick’ Martin of Ballynahinch, is recorded as holding five townlands in the parish of Killannin, barony of Moycullen, county Galway, at the time of Griffith’s Valuation although he emigrated to Canada in 1833. He was also recorded as the occupier of Clareville, a Martin home in the village of Oughterard. Many of his descendants still reside in Canada. http://www.martinhistory.net/

Thomas B. Martin of Ballynahinch Castle.

Thomas B. Martin is a member of the Martin (Ross) family.

Down Survey Website:

The Down Survey is a mapped survey. Using the Civil Survey as a guide, teams of surveyors, mainly former soldiers, were sent out under Petty’s direction to measure every townland to be forfeited to soldiers and adventurers. The resulting maps, made at a scale of 40 perches to one inch (the modern equivalent of 1:50,000), were the first systematic mapping of a large area on such a scale attempted anywhere. The primary purpose of these maps was to record the boundaries of each townland and to calculate their areas with great precision. The maps are also rich in other detail showing churches, roads, rivers, castles, houses and fortifications. Most towns are represented pictorially and the cartouches, the decorative titles, of each map in many cases reflect a specific characteristic of each barony. (http://downsurvey.tcd.ie)

Townland of TONWEE

Down Survey Name: Mountain
1670 Owner(s): Martin, Richard (Catholic); Clanrickard, Earl of (Protestant)
County: Galway
Barony: Muckullin
Parish: Killcumyn

Down Survey website

 

The Tithe Applotment Books

 About the Records

Tithes were a tax on agricultural produce which was payable by the occupiers of agricultural land. They were the main source of income for the parish clergy of the Church of Ireland (the largest Protestant church and the church established by law). However, in many parishes a large part of the tithes were ‘appropriate’, which meant that they were payable to a bishop, cathedral chapter or other ecclesiastical recipient, or were ‘impropriate’, which generally meant that they were payable to a local landowner. The parishes used in the Tithe Applotment Books are civil or Church of Ireland parishes, which often differ in name and territory from Catholic parishes, Acts of Parliament of 1823 and 1832 provided for the conversion of tithes into a fixed charge on land, and specified the average price of wheat or oats in the parish in the seven years before 1821 as the basis on which the tithes would be calculated. They also extended the application of tithes to pasture, where previously they had been levied only on tillage.

This change in the law resulted in the valuation of individual holdings in almost all parishes containing agricultural land, in order to assess the portion of the tithes for which each occupier of land would be liable. The apportionment was recorded for each Church of Ireland parish in a Tithe Composition Applotment Book. The information was collected and the amounts were calculated by two Parochial Commissioners, one of whom was appointed by the cess-payers of the parish and the other by the relevant Diocese of the Church of Ireland. This procedure was carried out in over 2,500 parishes between the years 1823 and 1837.

The Tithe Applotment Books are in a variety of formats, from a few pages sewn together to elaborately bound volumes. In most cases they are written in manuscript throughout, although some consist of manuscript entries on printed questionnaires. The information in the books is broadly uniform and generally includes at least the name of occupier; the size of holding, the valuation and the tithe payable. In some cases more detailed information is provided. Some volumes have maps and most have certificates and correspondence attached.

The sub-divisions of the parish were recorded. Some of these subdivisions, such as ploughlands, ceased to be in official use after the six inch survey of the Ordnance Survey was completed in the 1840s. Only productive land was subject to tithe, and the books usually distinguish between this tithable land and untithable land such as roads or mountains. Tithable land was in some cases classified by quality, and a money value was given to each class. In some cases the proportion of tithe payable to the rector, vicar or lay proprietor of the tithes was set out. The column for observations was sometimes completed, with information about commonage, for example.

There are a number of other points that should be noted. The acreages given in the Tithe Applotment Books are in Irish or Plantation measure, which is 1.62 times larger than statute measure. Only occupiers of land at the time of the tithe composition are recorded, so not all heads of households living in a parish at the time are included. Only rural areas are systematically covered, although inhabitants of towns who held plots of cultivable land are included. The equivalent tax in urban areas, Minister’s Money, has left few records.

The Tithe Applotment Books are an important source of information for a wide variety of researchers of pre-Famine Ireland. They provide the first surviving national list of the occupiers of land, and are used by genealogists as a partial substitute for returns of the 1821 and 1831 censuses of population, which were destroyed in 1922. They also record information on the quality of land, and provide information on pre-Ordnance Survey territorial divisions, some of which were not recognised after the 1840s.

The National Archives hold the original Tithe Applotment Books only for the twenty-six counties of the Republic of Ireland. The books for the six counties of Northern Ireland are held in the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland in Belfast. (http://titheapplotmentbooks.nationalarchives.ie/search/tab/aboutmore.jsp)

Tithe Applotment Tonwee

John Conners, Martin Conners, Michl Conners, Peter Conners & John Sullivan had 15 acres of land; 5 acres 2nd quality with a payment of 1s, 6 acres 3rd quality with a payment of 3d, 4 acres of 4th quality land with a payment of ½d.

The Tithes payments went to Richard Martin Esq. the Reverend James Daly & the Reverend John Wilson.

http://titheapplotmentbooks.nationalarchives.ie/reels/tab//004587459/004587459_00435.pdf

Griffiths Valuation

In Griffith’s valuation the area was 66 acres, 3 rood & 5 perch with a land value £14 5s 0d. Value of Buildings was £1 10s & 0d. Total valuation of £15 15s 0d.

Occupier of Land

James Connor                    Michael Connor                John Guinane

The Directors of the Law Life Assurance Co Ltd were the Immediate Lessors.

http://www.askaboutireland.ie/griffith-valuation/index.xml?action=doNameSearch&PlaceID=560215&county=Galway&barony=Moycullen&parish=Kilcummin&townland=%3Cb%3ETonwee%3C/b%3E

 

 Out Offices and Land

The out office was a farm building, a cow house, piggery or barn. The land was very poor and sterile and people were always poverty-stricken. At this time most tenants were trying to eke out a living on 5 acres or less and a farmer needed at least 15.3 acres to survive.

 Poor Law Union Ireland

In Ireland the Poor Relief Act of 1838 divided into districts or “unions” in which the local taxable inhabitants were to be financially responsible for all paupers in the area. In 1898 the Poor Law Union was adopted as the basic administrative division in place of the civil parish and barony. Further subdivision into 828 registration districts and 3,751 district electoral divisions followed. Townlands were not arranged according to these divisions with parish and barony retained as a means to make comparisons with records gathered before 1898.

The 1838 Act

The main provisions of the 1838 Act were:

  • The extension of the existing Poor Law Commissioners’ powers to Ireland, with the appointment of Assistant Commissioners who were to implement the Act in Ireland.
  • The division of the country into Poor Law Unions based on Irish electoral divisions which were they made up from townlands.
  • The creation of a Board of Guardians for each Union, two-thirds of whom were to be elected, the other third to be appointed ex officio.
  • The setting up of a workhouse in each Union.
  • The collection of a local poor-rate to finance the system.
  • Assistance for emigration.

Initially, 130 Unions were created, based upon 2,049 electoral divisions. The divisions were composed of townlands, a peculiarly Irish unit, traditionally of 120 Irish acres in area. (Between 1848 and 1850, an additional 33 Unions were created by subdividing and reorganizing the boundaries of some existing Unions, particularly in the west of the country.

Boards of Guardians were elected annually on 25th March. Only rate-payers were eligible for election, which effectively disenfranchised most of the native Irish who were usually tenants at this time. Rate-payers were allowed between one and six votes depending on the size of a valuation of their property.

Townlands

A town land is one of the smallest land divisions in Ireland. They range in size from a few acres to thousands of acres. Many are Gaelic in origin, but some came into existence after the Norman invasion 1169. Tonwee is a townland.

 Population & Census Information

You can retrieve a list of people who lived in this townland from 1827 to 1911. This list is compiled from the following resources.

  • The Tithe Applotment Books
  • Griffith’s Valuation
  • 1901 Census
  • 1911 Census

List of nineteenth century and early twentieth century inhabitants.

Census 1841-1891 

1841 – 13 houses with 68 people

1851 – 11 houses with 60 people

1861 – 10 houses with 54 people

1871 – 4 houses with 22 people

1881 – 5 houses (5 inhabited) with 27 people (11 males / 16 females). There were 11 outbuildings. Total Valuation of Houses & Lands £15 15s 0d.

1891 – 5 houses (5 inhabited) with 27 people (11 males /16 females). There were 7 Outbuildings. Total Valuation of Houses & Lands £16 5s 0d.

1901 Census

This is a return of the member of the family, their Visitors, Boarders, and Servants who slept or abode in their house on the night of 31st of March 1901 in Tonwee. There were 6 houses listed in the townland of Tonwee. 24 (14 females/ 10 males) were all Roman Catholics. The people that lived in Tonwee were born in Co. Galway. They had 13 outbuildings which included cow houses, piggeries & a barn.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000840949/

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000840950/

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000840951/

House 1

Thomas Faherty aged 30 was head of the family; married to Anne aged 30, they lived with their children Mary aged 5, Anne aged 3 and mother in law Anne Naughton aged 96.

Thomas was a farmer. Anne Naughton was a widow. Thomas could not read; Anne Faherty could read & write; they spoke Irish & English. Anne Naughton could not read; she spoke only Irish. The children could not read and it does not state if they spoke Irish or English.

They lived in a 2nd class house with 2 rooms and 3 front windows. They had a cow house & a piggery. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Galway/Oughterard/Tonwee/1394779/

House 2 (uninhabited)

House 3

Michl O’Connor aged 78 was head of the family; a widower, he lived with his sons John aged 49 & Patrick aged 45; both single.

Michl was a farmer; John was a farmer’s son and Patrick was a R.I.C. pensioner. All three men could read & write and spoke Irish & English.

They lived in a 3rd class house with 2 rooms and 2 front windows. They had 2 cow houses, a piggery and a barn. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Galway/Oughterard/Tonwee/1394780/

House 4

Michael Connor aged 67 was head of the family married to Bridget aged 60; they lived with their sons John aged 30 and Michael aged 22; both single.

Michael was a farmer; John & Michael were farmer’s sons. Michael & Bridget could not read. John & Michael (sons) could read and write. The entire family spoke Irish & English.

They lived in a 3rd class house with 2 rooms and 2 front windows. They had 2 cow houses and a piggery. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Galway/Oughterard/Tonwee/1394781/

House 5

Martin Connor aged 52 was head of the family married to Mary aged 46; they lived with their children Mary aged 22 and Martin aged 16; both single.

Martin was a farmer; Mary was a farmer’s daughter and her brother Martin was a farmer’s son. Parents Martin & Mary could not read, the children Mary & Martin could read and write. The entire family spoke Irish & English.

They lived in a 3rd class house with 2 rooms and 2 front windows. They had 1 cow house and a piggery. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Galway/Oughterard/Tonwee/1394782/

House 6

John Connor aged 60 was head of the family married to Mary aged 48; they lived with their children Barbara aged 19, Celia aged 17, Annie aged 14, Maria aged 11, Katie aged 9 & Sarah aged 5.

John was a farmer, Barbara, Celia & Annie were farmer’s daughters, and Maria, Katie & Sarah were scholars. John & Sarah could not read; Mary, Barbara, Celia, Annie, Maria & Katie could read and write. John, Mary & Barbara spoke Irish & English.

They lived in a 3rd class house with 2 rooms and 2 front windows. They had 1 cow house and a piggery. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Galway/Oughterard/Tonwee/1394783/

Census 1911 – Tonwee

This is a return of the Members of the families in Tonwee, their visitors, boarders and servants who slept or abode in the house on the night of Sunday 2nd April 1911.

There were 5 houses in the Townland of Tonwee. Of the people living in Tonwee all 18 (6 males/12 females) were Roman Catholics.

People that lived in Tonwee were born included Co. Galway. There were a total of 8 farm buildings and out offices which included cow houses, piggeries & a barn.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai002435947/

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai002435949/

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai002435951/

House 1

Mary Connor aged 63 was head of the family; a widow, she lived with her daughter Mary aged 36 and son Martin aged 24.

Mary was a farmer; she could not read. She spoke Irish & English. She was married for 39 years; she had 2 children with both still living at the time of the census. Mary (daughter) & Martin could read and write and spoke Irish & English.

They lived in a 3rd class house with 2 rooms and 2 front windows. They had 1 cow house. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/Galway/Oughterard/Tonwee/471361/

House 2

Michael Connor aged 75 was head of the family married to Bridget aged 65.

Michael was a farmer; Michael & Bridget could not read or write. They spoke Irish & English. They were married for 17 years.

They lived in a 3rd class house with 2 rooms and 2 front windows. They had 1 cow house. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/Galway/Oughterard/Tonwee/471362/

House 3

John Connor aged 40 was head of the family; married to Bridget aged 30, they lived with their children Maria aged 8, Michael aged 7, Margrit (Margaret) aged 5, Bridget aged 2 & Nora aged 3.

John was a farmer; Maria & Michael were scholars. John & Bridget could read & write and spoke Irish & English. Maria could read; Michael, Margaret, Bridget & Nora could not read or write. Maria, Michael, Margaret & Bridget spoke English.

John & Bridget were married for 10 years; they had 5 children with all 5 still living at the time of the census.

They lived in a 3rd class house with 2 rooms and 2 front windows. They had 1 cow house & 1 piggery. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/Galway/Oughterard/Tonwee/471363/

House 4

John Connor aged 60 was head of the family single; he lived alone.

John was a farmer, he could read and write and spoke Irish & English.

He lived in a 3rd class house with 2 rooms and 2 front windows. He had 1 cow house and a barn. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/Galway/Oughterard/Tonwee/471364/

House 5

John Connor aged 66 was head of the family married to Mary aged 58; they lived with their children Maggie aged 28, Marion aged 20, & Sarah aged 14.

John was a farmer. John could not read or write; Mary, Maggie, Marion & Sarah could read and write. The entire family spoke Irish & English.

They lived in a 3rd class house with 2 rooms and 2 front windows. They had 1 cow house and a piggery. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/Galway/Oughterard/Tonwee/471365/

 Church records of births, deaths and marriages:

Church records of births, deaths and marriages are available online at http://www.rootsireland.ie. To search these records you will need to know the ‘church parish’ rather than the ‘civil parish’. (The civil parish is the pre-reformation parish and was frequently used as a unit of administration in the past.)

Tonwee is in the civil parish of Kilcummin.

Catholic parish:

This civil parish corresponds with the following Roman Catholic parish or parishes.

  • Clonbern & Kilkerrin in Galway East.
  • Carraroe in Galway West.
  • Kilannin in Galway West.
  • Kilcummin/Oughterard in Galway West.
  • Rosmuc in Galway West.

Church of Ireland parish:

This civil parish corresponds with the following Church of Ireland parish.

  • Kilcummin in Galway West.

In general, the civil parish and the Church of Ireland parish are the same, but, this is not always the case.

Maps:

It is located at 53° 26′ 9″ N, 9° 19′ 58″ W.

Ireland was first mapped in the 1840s. These original maps are available online.

Tonwee

Original OS maps at the Ordnance Survey of Ireland website (Click on place name to view original map in new window.):

Below is a link to the Ordnance Survey of Ireland website. It displays the original OS map that was created in the 1840s.

Tonwee

Information from Google Maps:

You can use this link to find this townland on Google Maps.

Google Maps

Information from the National Monuments Service:

You can use this link to view a map of archaeological features. This link brings you to a website wherein you will have to search for your townland.

Archaeological map from the National Monuments Service

Townlands.ie Website

http://www.townlands.ie/galway/moycullen/kilcummin/oughterard/tonwee/

Galway Library Website

http://places.galwaylibrary.ie/asp/fullresult.asp?id=52531

 

This page was added on 19/02/2016.

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