Text - Treasa NicDhonncha & Hyperlinks - Antoinette Lydon
Portacarronbeg is in the civil parish of Kilcummin. The civil parish corresponds with the following Church of Ireland parish of Kilcummin, Galway West. In general the civil parish and the Church of Ireland parish are the same as is the case in the Kilcummin Oughterard area.
Irish Form of Name: Port a’ Charraoin
Translation: park of the water pail
Information From Joyce’s Place Names
Translation according to P. W. Joyce: Port, a bank, a landing-place, a fortress. To be interpreted according to circumstances.
O’Donovan’s Field Name Books
Other Forms of the Name:
Portacarronbeg Portacarronbeg Boundary Surveyor Portcarren Barony Cess book Portcarronbeg Local
Land very good. Contains 49 acres about 30 acres of arable land, the remainder bog.
Situation: Situate in the northern extremity of the parish.
Portacarron Beg borders the following other townlands:
Arthur French St. George of Tyrone House
Arthur French St. George is a member of the St George (Tyrone) family.
Landed Estates Database:
St George (Tyrone)- The St Georges of Headford Castle and of Tyrone both trace their ancestry back through the female line to the St Georges of Hatley St George, Cambridgeshire and share a common ancestry with the St Georges of Carrickdrumrusk, county Leitrim, Barons St George of Hatley St George.
St. George (Tyrone House) – The St. George estate was centred on the house at Tyrone, parish of Drumacoo, barony of Dunkellin, built about 1779. This had originally been a French estate but the family assumed the title of St. George in 1774 due to inheritance from the St. George family of Hatley Manor, county Leitrim. In the 1830s A.F. St. George owned Tyrone House and Kilcolgan Castle, his agent was J. O’Hara. Wm. Griffith of Dublin also acted as an agent for the St. George estate. Arthur French St. George is described as a resident proprietor in 1824. In the early 19th century the St. Georges also owned large amounts of land in the baronies of Moycullen, Ballynahinch and Clare, which they advertised for sale in the early 1850s. Land in the barony of Clare had been acquired through Arthur French’s marriage with a Kirwan in the late 17th century. A portion of the St. George estate, situated in the barony of Longford, was offered for sale in the Encumbered Estates court in November 1853. In 1870s the family owned 15,777 acres in county Galway. By the early 1900s, however, some of the estate had been sold and the house at Tyrone had been left empty for long periods. In 1914 over 3000 acres of an estate descibed as St. George and Concannon was vested in the Congested Districts Board. Many members of the family are buried in a church-style mausoleum in the cemetery at Drumacoo.
The Down Survey is a mapped survey. Using the Civil Survey as a guide, teams of surveyors, mainly former soldiers, were sent out under Petty’s direction to measure every townland to be forfeited to soldiers and adventurers. The resulting maps, made at a scale of 40 perches to one inch (the modern equivalent of 1:50,000), were the first systematic mapping of a large area on such a scale attempted anywhere. The primary purpose of these maps was to record the boundaries of each townland and to calculate their areas with great precision. The maps are also rich in other detail showing churches, roads, rivers, castles, houses and fortifications. Most towns are represented pictorially and the cartouches, the decorative titles, of each map in many cases reflect a specific characteristic of each barony. (http://downsurvey.tcd.ie)
Down Survey Information on Portacarronbeg
Profitable land: 58 plantation acres Forfeited: 58 plantation acres
Information from the Down Survey Website:
The Down Survey website will tell you who owned this townland in 1641 (pre Cromwell) and in 1671 (post Cromwell).
The Tithe Applotment Books
About the Records
Tithes were a tax on agricultural produce which was payable by the occupiers of agricultural land. They were the main source of income for the parish clergy of the Church of Ireland (the largest Protestant church and the church established by law). However, in many parishes a large part of the tithes were ‘appropriate’, which meant that they were payable to a bishop, cathedral chapter or other ecclesiastical recipient, or were ‘impropriate’, which generally meant that they were payable to a local landowner. The parishes used in the Tithe Applotment Books are civil or Church of Ireland parishes, which often differ in name and territory from Catholic parishes,
Acts of Parliament of 1823 and 1832 provided for the conversion of tithes into a fixed charge on land, and specified the average price of wheat or oats in the parish in the seven years before 1821 as the basis on which the tithes would be calculated. They also extended the application of tithes to pasture, where previously they had been levied only on tillage.
This change in the law resulted in the valuation of individual holdings in almost all parishes containing agricultural land, in order to assess the portion of the tithes for which each occupier of land would be liable. The apportionment was recorded for each Church of Ireland parish in a Tithe Composition Applotment Book. The information was collected and the amounts were calculated by two Parochial Commissioners, one of whom was appointed by the cess-payers of the parish and the other by the relevant Diocese of the Church of Ireland. This procedure was carried out in over 2,500 parishes between the years 1823 and 1837.
The Tithe Applotment Books are in a variety of formats, from a few pages sewn together to elaborately bound volumes. In most cases they are written in manuscript throughout, although some consist of manuscript entries on printed questionnaires. The information in the books is broadly uniform and generally includes at least the name of occupier; the size of holding, the valuation and the tithe payable. In some cases more detailed information is provided. Some volumes have maps and most have certificates and correspondence attached.
The sub-divisions of the parish were recorded. Some of these subdivisions, such as ploughlands, ceased to be in official use after the six inch survey of the Ordnance Survey was completed in the 1840s. Only productive land was subject to tithe, and the books usually distinguish between this tithable land and untithable land such as roads or mountains. Tithable land was in some cases classified by quality, and a money value was given to each class. In some cases the proportion of tithe payable to the rector, vicar or lay proprietor of the tithes was set out. The column for observations was sometimes completed, with information about commonage, for example.
There are a number of other points that should be noted. The acreages given in the Tithe Applotment Books are in Irish or Plantation measure, which is 1.62 times larger than statute measure. Only occupiers of land at the time of the tithe composition are recorded, so not all heads of households living in a parish at the time are included. Only rural areas are systematically covered, although inhabitants of towns who held plots of cultivable land are included. The equivalent tax in urban areas, Minister’s Money, has left few records.
The Tithe Applotment Books are an important source of information for a wide variety of researchers of pre-Famine Ireland. They provide the first surviving national list of the occupiers of land, and are used by genealogists as a partial substitute for returns of the 1821 and 1831 censuses of population, which were destroyed in 1922. They also record information on the quality of land, and provide information on pre-Ordnance Survey territorial divisions, some of which were not recognised after the 1840s.
The National Archives hold the original Tithe Applotment Books only for the twenty-six counties of the Republic of Ireland. The books for the six counties of Northern Ireland are held in the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland in Belfast. (http://titheapplotmentbooks.nationalarchives.ie/search/tab/aboutmore.jsp)
Tithe Applotment Record for Portacarronbeg
Listed in the Tithe Applotment book for Portacarronbeg in 1829 is;
Francis French Esq.
Land Liable for Tithe
The total land liable for tithes in Portacarronbeg was 30 acres. This was divided into five separate columns according to the quality of land.
- 3 acres of 1st rate quality land with a tithe of 1s 6d per acre.
- 5 acre of 2nd rate quality land with a tithe of 1s per acre.
- 5 acres of 3rd rate quality land with a tithe of 3d per acre.
- 2 acres of 4th rate quality land with a tithe of ½ d per acre.
- 15 acres and 2 roods of 5th rate quality land with a tithe of ⅛d per acre.
The proportion of tithes payable to Richard Martin Esq. was 5s, 5 ¾ d, the proportion of tithes payable to Reverend James Daly was 2s, 9d and the proportion of tithes payable to Reverend John Wilson was 2s 8 ¾ d.
Griffith’s Valuation 1850s
In Griffith’s Valuation the area is 48 acres 3 roods and 33 perches with a land value of £11 and a building value of 5s with a total value of £11 5s.
Occupiers of the Land:
The occupier of the land at this time was Colonel Anderson.
The land was in fee.
Ownership of Land and Property
Colonel Anderson owned a herds house and land.
The total annual valuation of rateable property in Portacarronbeg came to £11 5s.
Land Rates: Colonel Anderson paid £11.
Building Rates: Colonel Anderson paid 5s.
Out Offices and Land
The out office was a farm building, a cow house, piggery or barn. The land was very poor and sterile and people were always poverty-stricken. At this time most tenants were trying to eke out a living on 5acres or less and farmers needed at least 15.3 acres to survive.
Poor Law Union Ireland
In Ireland the Poor Relief Act of 1838 divided into districts or “unions” in which the local taxable inhabitants were to be financially responsible for all paupers in the area. In 1898 the Poor Law Union was adopted as the basic administrative division in place of the civil parish and barony. Further subdivision into 828 registration districts and 3,751 district electoral divisions followed. Townlands were not arranged according to these divisions with parish and barony retained as a means to make comparisons with records gathered before 1898.
The 1838 Act
The main provisions of the 1838 Act were:
- The extension of the existing Poor Law Commissioners’ powers to Ireland, with the appointment of Assistant Commissioners who were to implement the Act in Ireland.
- The division of the country into Poor Law Unions based on Irish electoral divisions which were themselves made up from townlands.
- The creation of a Board of Guardians for each Union, two-thirds of whom were to be elected, the other third to be appointed ex officio.
- The setting up of a workhouse in each Union.
- The collection of a local poor-rate to finance the system.
- Assistance for emigration.
Initially, 130 Unions were created, based upon 2,049 electoral divisions. The divisions were composed of townlands, a peculiarly Irish unit, traditionally of 120 Irish acres in area. (Between 1848 and 1850, an additional 33 Unions were created by subdividing and reorganizing the boundaries of some existing Unions, particularly in the west of the country.
Boards of Guardians were elected annually on 25th March. Only rate-payers were eligible for election, which effectively disenfranchised most of the native Irish who were usually tenants at this time. Rate-payers were allowed between one and six votes depending on the size of a valuation of their property.
A town land is one of the smallest land divisions in Ireland. They range in size from a few acres to thousands of acres. Many are Gaelic in origin, but some came into existence after the Norman invasion 1169. Portacarronbeg is a townland.
Population & Census Information
People who lived here:
You can retrieve a list of people who lived in this townland from 1827 to 1911. This list is compiled from the following resources.
- The Tithe Applotment Books
- Griffith’s Valuation
- 1901 Census
- 1911 Census
1841 – 1 house with 2 people living in Portacarronbeg
1851 – 1 house with 3 people
1861 – 1 house with 2 people
1871 – 1 house with 5 people
1881- 1 house (1 inhabited) with 5 people (1 male, 4 females). There was 1 outbuilding in Portacarronbeg. The valuation of Houses & Land in 1881 was £11 10s 0d.
1891 – 1 house (1 inhabited) with 7 people (4 males, 3 females). There were no outbuildings in Portacarronbeg. The valuation of Houses & Land in 1891 was £11 10s 0d.
This is a return of the members of the family, their Visitors, Boarders, Servants who slept or abode in their house on the night of Sunday March 31st 1901 in Portacarronbeg.
There was 1 building listed in the townland Portacarronbeg. The house was inhabited. All the people were Roman Catholic and were born in County Galway.
Farm Buildings and Out Offices
There was 1 out offices and farm steadings in the townland. This was a fowl house.
Description of the Houses
Class of House: The class of house depended on the materials used in the roof, walls, number of rooms and number of front windows. A 1st class house was considered the highest standard.
Walls of the houses: The walls were of stone, brick, and concrete or of mud, wood or other perishable material. The house in Portacarronbeg was built of stone, brick or concrete. There were no mud cabins.
Roofs: Roofs were of slate, iron, tiles, thatch, wood or other perishable material. The roofs of houses were of thatch, wood or perishable material. They were most likely thatched. The house in Portacarronbeg had a roof of thatch, wood or other perishable materials.
The house was listed as a private dwelling and was occupied by 1 family. The person listed as the head of the family was not listed as the lawful landholder. There was a total population of 2, with 1 male and 1 females residing in the townland.
House & Buildings Return
Out Offices & Farm Steadings
House No. 1 (2 occupants)
John Burke aged 44 was the head of the family. He lived with his sister Sabina aged 50. John’s occupation was listed as Herd. Sabina was a housekeeper.They were both single. John had, 1 fowl house. Neither could read. They both spoke Irish and English. They lived in a class 2 house with 3 front windows. 2 people occupied 3 available rooms. Mary Brown was the legal landholder of the property.
This is a return of the Members of families in Portacarronbeg, their visitors, boarders and servants who slept or abode in the house on the night of Sunday the 2nd of April 1911.
Description of the Houses
The house in Portacarronbeg was listed as private dwelling and was built of concrete or stone. The roof of the house was of wood, thatch or other perishable materials. It was most likely thatched.. The heads of the families were listed as the landholders. One family lived in the property. The Class of the house depended on the material used in the roof, walls, number of rooms and number of front windows.
The house was listed as a private dwelling and was occupied by 1 family. They were all Roman Catholic and the head of the family was not listed as the legal landholder. There were a total of 2 people living in the village, 1 male and 1 female. There was a total of 1 farm building in the village. This was a cow house.
House & Buildings Return
Out Offices & Farm Steadings
House No. 1 (2 occupants)
John Burke aged 70 was the head of the house. He lived with his sister Sabina aged 74. John’s occupation was listed as Herd. They were both single. John had, 1 cow house. Neither could read. They both spoke Irish and English. They lived in a class 3 house with 2 front windows. 2 people occupied 2 available rooms. Mary Brown was the legal landholder of the property.
Church records of births, deaths and marriages:
Church records of births, deaths and marriages are available online at http://www.rootsireland.ie. To search these records, you will need to know the ‘church parish’ rather than the ‘civil parish’. (The civil parish is the pre-reformation parish and was frequently used as a unit of administration in the past.)
Portacarronbeg is in the civil parish of Kilcummin.
This civil parish corresponds with the following Roman Catholic parish or parishes.
- Clonbern & Kilkerrin in Galway East.
- Carraroe in Galway West.
- Kilannin in Galway West.
- Kilcummin/Oughterard in Galway West.
- Rosmuc in Galway West.
Church of Ireland parish:
This civil parish corresponds with the following Church of Ireland parish.
- Kilcummin in Galway West.
In general, the civil parish and the Church of Ireland parish are the same, but, this is not always the case.
Original OS map of this area
Ireland was first mapped in the 1840s. These original maps are available online.
Original OS maps at the Ordnance Survey of Ireland website
Below is a link to the Ordnance Survey of Ireland website. It displays the original OS map that was created in the 1840s.
Information from Google Maps:
You can use this link to find this townland on Google Maps.
Information from the National Monuments Service:
You can use this link to view a map of archaeological features. This link brings you to a website wherein you will have to search for your townland.
Galway Library Website