Eighterard

Antoinette Lydon

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Eighterard is in the civil parish of Kilcummin. The civil Parish corresponds with the following Church of Ireland parish of Kilcummin, Galway West. In general the civil parish and the Church of Ireland parish are the same as is the case in the Kilcummin Oughterard area.

Irish Form of Name: Iochtar Árd

Translation: Lower Hill

Other forms of the Name:

Eighterard
Iochtar Árd
Eighterard Boundary Surveyor
Eighterard Barony Cess Book
Eighterard County Map
Eighterard Local

Other placenames in this townland:

Some other placenames in or near this townland are:

Description:

Eighterard contains 116 acres all of which is under tillage except 2 acres of bog. There is a village situated in the Northern part of the townland, and an old fort in the central part of it – the Oughterard river, centre of which forms part of the southern boundary of this townland.

Boundries:

Eighterard is In the northern extremity of the parish.

Eighterard borders the following other townlands:

Landlord:

Arthur French St. George of Tyrone House

Arthur French St. George is a member of the St George (Tyrone) family.

Arthur French St. George of Tyrone House (c. 1850)

St. George – Richard St George, a member of a Cambridgeshire family, came to Ireland in the 17th century and was appointed Governor of the town of Athlone. His grandson Richard St George of Carrick on Shannon, county Leitrim, had 2 natural children, Richard St George founder of the Hatley Manor, county Leitrim branch of the family and Mary St George, who married James Mansergh and they were the parents of Colonel Richard Mansergh St George of Headford, county Galway. Members of the family served as High Sheriffs of Leitrim in the eighteenth century. Charles Manners St. George and his Swedish wife Christina were the owners of the St.George estate in Leitrim in the mid-19th century. Petronella Halberg, niece of Christina St George, married Charles Whyte of Newtown Manor and the Whytes inherited Hatley Manor and much of the St George property. The representative of Mrs. St. George are listed as the owners of over 1600 acres in 1876. The family also held lands in counties Offaly, Roscommon, Tipperary (629 acres in the parish of Donaghmore, barony of Iffa and Offa East) and Waterford where Christina St George is recorded as the owner of over 1000 acres. Over 300 acres of Sir John St. George’s estate in the latter county was offered for sale in the Landed Estates Court in June 1878. Sir Richard St. George of Tully is recorded as a member of the Grand Panel of county Roscommon in 1828. In 1852 the Roscommon portion of the estate in the barony of Moycarn was offered for sale in the Encumbered Estates court. This was the property of Richard Bligh St. George and Thomas Baldwin St. George. However, it appears not to have all been sold as Kate St.George was a principal lessor in the parish of Moore, barony of Moycarn, at the time of Griffith’s Valuation. Her property was sublet from the Bishop of Meath. In the 1870s she is recorded as owning over 1700 acres in county Roscommon and was resident at Cheltenham, England.

St. George (Tyrone House) – The St.George estate was centred on the house at Tyrone, parish of Drumacoo, barony of Dunkellin, built about 1779. This had originally been a French estate but the family assumed the title of St.George in 1774 due to inheritance from the St.George family of Hatley Manor, county Leitrim. In the 1830s A.F. St. George owned Tyrone House and Kilcolgan Castle, his agent was J. O’Hara. Wm. Griffith of Dublin also acted as an agent for the St. George estate. Arthur French St. George is described as a resident proprietor in 1824. In the early 19th century the St. Georges also owned large amounts of land in the baronies of Moycullen, Ballynahinch and Clare, which they advertised for sale in the early 1850s. Land in the barony of Clare had been acquired through Arthur French’s marriage with a Kirwan in the late 17th century. A portion of the St. George estate, situated in the barony of Longford, was offered for sale in the Encumbered Estates court in November 1853. In 1870s the family owned 15,777 acres in county Galway. By the early 1900s, however, some of the estate had been sold and the house at Tyrone had been left empty for long periods. In 1914 over 3000 acres of an estate described as St. George and Concannon was vested in the Congested Districts Board. Many members of the family are buried in a church-style mausoleum in the cemetery at Drumacoo.

The Tithe Applotment Books:

About the Records

Tithes were a tax on agricultural produce which was payable by the occupiers of agricultural land. They were the main source of income for the parish clergy of the Church of Ireland (the largest Protestant church and the church established by law). However, in many parishes a large part of the tithes were ‘appropriate’, which meant that they were payable to a bishop, cathedral chapter or other ecclesiastical recipient, or were ‘impropriate’, which generally meant that they were payable to a local landowner. The parishes used in the Tithe Applotment Books are civil or Church of Ireland parishes, which often differ in name and territory from Catholic parishes, Acts of Parliament of 1823 and 1832 provided for the conversion of tithes into a fixed charge on land, and specified the average price of wheat or oats in the parish in the seven years before 1821 as the basis on which the tithes would be calculated. They also extended the application of tithes to pasture, where previously they had been levied only on tillage.

This change in the law resulted in the valuation of individual holdings in almost all parishes containing agricultural land, in order to assess the portion of the tithes for which each occupier of land would be liable. The apportionment was recorded for each Church of Ireland parish in a Tithe Composition Applotment Book. The information was collected and the amounts were calculated by two Parochial Commissioners, one of whom was appointed by the cess-payers of the parish and the other by the relevant Diocese of the Church of Ireland. This procedure was carried out in over 2,500 parishes between the years 1823 and 1837.

The Tithe Applotment Books are in a variety of formats, from a few pages sewn together to elaborately bound volumes. In most cases they are written in manuscript throughout, although some consist of manuscript entries on printed questionnaires. The information in the books is broadly uniform and generally includes at least the name of occupier; the size of holding, the valuation and the tithe payable. In some cases more detailed information is provided. Some volumes have maps and most have certificates and correspondence attached.

The sub-divisions of the parish were recorded. Some of these subdivisions, such as ploughlands, ceased to be in official use after the six inch survey of the Ordnance Survey was completed in the 1840s. Only productive land was subject to tithe, and the books usually distinguish between this tithable land and untithable land such as roads or mountains. Tithable land was in some cases classified by quality, and a money value was given to each class. In some cases the proportion of tithe payable to the rector, vicar or lay proprietor of the tithes was set out. The column for observations was sometimes completed, with information about commonage, for example.

There are a number of other points that should be noted. The acreages given in the Tithe Applotment Books are in Irish or Plantation measure, which is 1.62 times larger than statute measure. Only occupiers of land at the time of the tithe composition are recorded, so not all heads of households living in a parish at the time are included. Only rural areas are systematically covered, although inhabitants of towns who held plots of cultivable land are included. The equivalent tax in urban areas, Minister’s Money, has left few records.

The Tithe Applotment Books are an important source of information for a wide variety of researchers of pre-Famine Ireland. They provide the first surviving national list of the occupiers of land, and are used by genealogists as a partial substitute for returns of the 1821 and 1831 censuses of population, which were destroyed in 1922. They also record information on the quality of land, and provide information on pre-Ordnance Survey territorial divisions, some of which were not recognised after the 1840s.

The National Archives hold the original Tithe Applotment Books only for the twenty-six counties of the Republic of Ireland. The books for the six counties of Northern Ireland are held in the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland in Belfast. (http://titheapplotmentbooks.nationalarchives.ie/search/tab/aboutmore.jsp)

Tithe Applotment Books

Thom Faherty, Patt Donelan, John Rutlage, Wm, Glinnane, Mark Walsh & John Molloy had 66 acres; 12 acres of 1st quality land with a payment of 1s 6d, 14 acres 2nd quality with a payment of 1s, 24 acres 3rd quality with a payment of 3d, 16 acres of 4th quality land with a payment of ½d.

The Tithes payments went to Richard Martin Esq. James Daly & the Reverend John Wilson.

http://titheapplotmentbooks.nationalarchives.ie/search/tab/results.jsp?surname=&firstname=&county=Galway&parish=kilcummin&townland=Eighterard&search=Search

Downs Survey 1641

Townland of EIGHTERARD

Down Survey Name: Eaghterard
1641 Owner(s): Martin, Robert (Catholic)
1670 Owner(s): Kelly, Donnogh (Catholic)
County: Galway
Barony: Muckullin
Parish: Killcumyn
Unprofitable land: 5 plantation acres
Profitable land: 21 plantation acres
Forfeited: 21 plantation acres

Information from the Down Survey Website:

The Down Survey website will tell you who owned this townland in 1641 (pre Cromwell) and in 1671 (post Cromwell).

Down Survey website

 

Griffiths Valuation:

In Griffith’s valuation the area was 116 acres, 2 rood & 1 perch with a land value £40 0s 0d. Value of Buildings was £1 15s & 0d. Total valuation of £41 15s 0d.

Christopher St George was the Immediate Lessor. 

Occupier of Land: Martin Molloy, Stephen M Owen, John Roche & John Donnellan.

 http://www.askaboutireland.ie/griffith-valuation/index.xml?action=doNameSearch&PlaceID=559893

Census 1841-1891 

1841 – No house recorded in the townland

1851 – 6 houses with 30 people

1861 – 6 houses with 29 people

1871 – 5 houses with 30 people

1881 – 5 houses (5 inhabited) with 40 people (21 males / 19 females). There were 13 outbuildings. Total Valuation of Houses & Lands £42 15s 0d.

1891 – 7 houses (7 inhabited) with 45 people (23 males / 22 females). There were 11 Outbuildings. Total Valuation of Houses & Lands £46 5s 0d.

 

Poor Law Union Ireland

In Ireland the Poor Relief Act of 1838 divided into districts or “unions” in which the local taxable inhabitants were to be financially responsible for all paupers in the area. In 1898 the Poor Law Union was adopted as the basic administrative division in place of the civil parish and barony. Further subdivision into 828 registration districts and 3,751 district electoral divisions followed. Townlands were not arranged according to these divisions with parish and barony retained as a means to make comparisons with records gathered before 1898.

The 1838 Act

The main provisions of the 1838 Act were:

  • The extension of the existing Poor Law Commissioners’ powers to Ireland, with the appointment of Assistant Commissioners who were to implement the Act in Ireland.
  • The division of the country into Poor Law Unions based on Irish electoral divisions which were they made up from townlands.
  • The creation of a Board of Guardians for each Union, two-thirds of whom were to be elected, the other third to be appointed ex officio.
  • The setting up of a workhouse in each Union.
  • The collection of a local poor-rate to finance the system.
  • Assistance for emigration.

Initially, 130 Unions were created, based upon 2,049 electoral divisions. The divisions were composed of townlands, a peculiarly Irish unit, traditionally of 120 Irish acres in area. (Between 1848 and 1850, an additional 33 Unions were created by subdividing and reorganizing the boundaries of some existing Unions, particularly in the west of the country.

Boards of Guardians were elected annually on 25th March. Only rate-payers were eligible for election, which effectively disenfranchised most of the native Irish who were usually tenants at this time. Rate-payers were allowed between one and six votes depending on the size of a valuation of their property.

 Out Offices and Land

The out office was a farm building, a cow house, piggery or barn. The land was very poor and sterile and people were always poverty-stricken. At this time most tenants were trying to eke out a living on 5 acres or less and a farmer needed at least 15.3 acres to survive.

 

Townlands

A town land is one of the smallest land divisions in Ireland. They range in size from a few acres to thousands of acres. Many are Gaelic in origin, but some came into existence after the Norman invasion 1169. Eighterard is a townland.

Population & Census Return

You can retrieve a list of people who lived in this townland from 1827 to 1911. This list is compiled from the following resources.

  • The Tithe Applotment Books
  • Griffith’s Valuation
  • 1901 Census
  • 1911 Census

List of nineteenth century and early twentieth century inhabitants.

Census 1901 Eighterard

This is a return of the member of the family, their Visitors, Boarders, and Servants who slept or abode in their house on the night of 31st of March 1901 in Eighterard. There were 6 houses listed in the townland of Eighterard. 37 (18 females/ 19 males) were all Roman Catholics. The people that lived in Eighterard were born in Co. Galway. They had 17 outbuildings which included stables, cow houses, a calf house & piggeries.

Enumerators Extract

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000840729/

House & Building Return

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000840730/

Return of Out Offices & Farm Steadings

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000840731/

House 1

Stephen McQuinn aged 35 was head of the family; married to Delia aged 35, they lived with their children William aged 16, John aged 14, Mary Ellen aged 12, Stephen aged 4, Delia aged 2 & Patrick aged 1.

Stephen was a farmer, Delia was a farmer’s wife, William a farmer’s son, John, Mary Ellen, Stephen were scholars. Stephen, Delia (parents) & William could read & write and spoke Irish & English. John & Mary Ellen could read & write and spoke English. Stephen, Delia & Patrick could not read. Stephen & Delia (children) spoke English.

They lived a 2nd class house with 2 rooms and 5 front windows. They had 2 stables, a cow house & a calf house. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Galway/Oughterard/Eighterard/1394646/

House 2

James McQuinn aged 33 was head of the family; married to Mary aged 32, they lived with their children Stephen aged 3, Mary Anne aged 2 & Patrick aged  6 months.

James was a farmer. James & Mary could read & write and spoke Irish & English. The children could not read. Stephen & Mary Anne spoke English.

They lived a 2nd class house with 2 rooms and 3 front windows. They had a stable, cow house & a piggery. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Galway/Oughterard/Eighterard/1394647/

House 3

John Molloy aged 40 was head of the family; married to Bridget aged 32, they lived with their children Martin Joe aged 14, Mary aged 12, William aged 10, Barbara aged 9, Matthew aged 7, Timothy aged 4 & Anne aged 2.

John was a farmer, Bridget was a farmer’s wife and Martin Joe, Mary, William, Barbara & Matthew were scholars. John & Bridget could read & write and spoke Irish & English. Martin Joe, Mary, William & Barbara could read & write and spoke English. Matthew, Timothy & Anne could not read; they spoke English.

They lived in a 2nd class house with 2 rooms & 3 front windows. They had a stable, cow house & a piggery. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Galway/Oughterard/Eighterard/1394648/

House 4

Martin Molloy aged 60 was head of the family; married to Barbara aged 55, they lived with their children Matthew aged 35, Patk(Patrick) aged 28, Barbara aged 18 and grandson Martin Conneely aged 15, all single.

Martin was a farmer; Matthew & Patk were farmer’s sons, Barbara was a farmer’s daughter and Martin was a farm servant. Martin & Patk could not read. Barbara, Matthew, Barbara & Martin could read & write. The entire household spoke Irish & English.

They lived in a 2nd class house with 2 rooms & 3 front windows. They had a stable, cow house & a piggery. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Galway/Oughterard/Eighterard/1394649/

House 5

Mary McDonagh aged 57 was head of the family; a widow, she lived  with her children Maggie aged 26, Thomas aged 24, Anne aged 18, Maria aged 16 & Ellen aged 14.

Mary was a farmer; Maggie & Anne were farmer’s daughters; Thomas was a farmer’s son and Maria & Ellen were scholars. Mary could not read; she spoke only Irish. All the girls could read & write and spoke Irish & English. Thomas could not read; he spoke Irish & English.

They lived in a 3rd class house with 2 rooms & 1 front window. They had a cow house & a piggery. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Galway/Oughterard/Eighterard/1394650/

House 6

Mary Gill aged 67 was head of the family; a widow, she lived with her children John aged 25 & Kate aged 20, both single.

Mary was a farmer; John was a farmer’s son and Kate was a farmer’s daughter. Mary could not read; John & Kate could read & write. They all spoke Irish & English.

They lived in a 3rd class house with 2 rooms & 2 front windows. They had 2 cow houses. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Galway/Oughterard/Eighterard/1394651/

Census 1911 – Eighterard

This is a return of the Members of the families in Eighterard, their visitors, boarders and servants who slept or abode in the house on the night of Sunday 2nd April 1911.

There were 8 houses (1 uninhabited) listed in the Townland of Eighterard. Of the people living in Eighterard all 53 (27 males/26 females) were Roman Catholics.

People that lived in Eighterard were born included Co. Galway. There were a total of 11 farm buildings and out offices which included stables, cow houses, & piggeries.

Enumerators Extract

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai002435514/

House & Building Return

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai002435516/

Out Office & Farm Steading

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai002435518/

House 1

Thomas Faherty aged 34 was head of the family; married to Anne aged 5, they lived with their daughters Mary aged 15 & Anne aged 13 and mother in law Anne Haughton (should read Naughton transcribed incorrectly on Census return).

Thomas was a farmer and Mary was a scholar. Both daughters could read & write; the adults in the household could not read. The entire family spoke Irish & English.

Thomas & Anne were married for 13 years.

Anne Naughton was married for 30 years; she had 3 children with 2 still living at the time of the census.

They lived in a 3rd class house with 2 rooms and 2 front windows. They had no outbuildings. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/Galway/Oughterard/Eighterard/471230/

House 2

Stephen McQuinn aged 45 was head of the family; married to Delia aged 44, they lived with their children John aged 22, Mary Ellen aged 19, Stephen aged 14, Delia aged 13, Patrick aged 11, George aged 7 & Mary Anne aged 8 months.

Stephen was a relieving officer; Stephen, Delia, Patrick & George were scholars. All the family with the exception of baby Mary Anne could read & write and spoke Irish & English. John & Mary Ellen spoke English.

Stephen & Delia were married for 25 years; they had 9 children with 8 still living at the time of the census.

They lived a 2nd class house with 3 rooms and 5 front windows. They had a stable and a cow house. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/Galway/Oughterard/Eighterard/471231/

House 3

James McQuinn aged 44 was head of the family; married to Mary aged 44, they lived with their children Stephen John aged 13, Mary A aged 12 & Patrick M aged 11, James aged 9, Bridget aged 7, Anthony J aged 6 & Thomas F aged 3.

James was a farmer. Mary was a farmer’s wife. Stephen John, Mary A, Patrick M, James, Bridget & Anthony J were all scholars. James, Mary, Stephen John, Mary A, Patrick M, James & Bridget could read & write and spoke Irish & English. Anthony J could and spoke Irish & English. Thomas F could not read; he spoke Irish & English.

James & Mary were married for 14 years; they had 7 children with all 7 still living at the time of the census.

They lived a 2nd class house with 2 rooms and 3 front windows. They had a stable & a cow house. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/Galway/Oughterard/Eighterard/471231/

House 4

John Molloy aged 53 was head of the family; married to Bridget aged 46, they lived with their children Willie aged 20, Barbara aged 19, Matt aged 16, Tim aged 14, Annie aged 11, John aged 9, Maggie aged 7 & Patrick Michael aged 3.

John was a farmer, Matt, Tim, Annie, John & Maggie were scholars. John & Bridget could read & write and spoke Irish & English. Martin Joe, Mary, Willie, Barbara, Matt, Tim, Annie, John & Maggie could read. Patrick Michael could not read.

John & Bridget were married for 24 years; they had 11 children with 10 still living at the time of the census.

They lived in a 2nd class house with 2 rooms & 3 front windows. They had a stable, cow house & a piggery. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/Galway/Oughterard/Eighterard/471233/

House 5

Martin Molloy aged 83 was head of the family; married to Barbara aged 74, they lived with their son Matthias aged 50, daughter in law Norah aged 35, Patrick aged 48, and grandchildren Mary aged 8, Martin aged 6, John aged 4, Barbara aged 3 & Patrick Joseph aged 1 month.

Martin & Matthias were farmers; Patrick was a labourer. Mary, Martin & John were scholars.

Martin, Barbara, & children John, Barbara & Patrick Joseph could not read. Matthias, Norah, Patrick, Mary, Martin could read & write. Martin, Barbara, Matthias, Norah, Patrick, Mary, Martin & John spoke Irish & English.

Martin & Barbara were married for 60 years; they had 13 children with 9 still living at the time of the census.

They lived in a 2nd class house with 2 rooms & 3 front windows. They had a stable & a cow house. This was a private premise.

Please note that Martin was listed as aged 60, Barbara aged 55, Mathias aged 35 & Patrick 28 in 1901 Census. It was common at the time for person to make themselves older as the Old Age Pension was introduced in 1909.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/Galway/Oughterard/Eighterard/471234/

House 6

Mary Gill aged 76 was head of the family; a widow, she lived with her children John aged 36 & Kate aged 30; both single and grandson Patrick Gill aged 12.

John was a tenant farmer. Patrick was a scholar. Mary could not read; Mary could not read & write; John, Kate & Patrick could read & write. They all spoke Irish & English.

Mary was married for 30 years; she had 11 children with 9 still living at the time of the census.

They lived in a 3rd class house with 2 rooms & 2 front windows. They had 2 cow houses. This was a private premise.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/Galway/Oughterard/Eighterard/471235/

House 7

Mary McDonagh aged 64 was head of the family; a widow, she lived  with her children Maggie aged 31, Murty aged 29, Annie aged 27, Maria aged 25 & Ellen aged 23, all single.

Murty was a farmer; Ellen was a seamstress. Mary could not read; she spoke Irish & English. Maggie, Murty, Annie, Maria & Ellen could read & write and spoke Irish & English.

They lived in a 3rd class house with 2 rooms & 2 front windowa. They had a stable & a piggery. This was a private premise.

Mary was married for 47 years; she had 10 children with all 10 still living at the time of the census.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/Galway/Oughterard/Eighterard/471236/

Church records of births, deaths and marriages:

Church records of births, deaths and marriages are available online at http://www.rootsireland.ie. To search these records you will need to know the ‘church parish’ rather than the ‘civil parish’. (The civil parish is the pre-reformation parish and was frequently used as a unit of administration in the past.)

Eighterard is in the civil parish of Kilcummin.

Catholic parish:

  • This civil parish corresponds with the following Roman Catholic parish or parishes.
  • Clonbern & Kilkerrin in Galway East.
  • Carraroe in Galway West.
  • Kilannin in Galway West.
  • Kilcummin/Oughterard in Galway West.
  • Rosmuc in Galway West.

Church of Ireland parish:

This civil parish corresponds with the following Church of Ireland parish.

  • Kilcummin in Galway West.

In general, the civil parish and the Church of Ireland parish are the same, but, this is not always the case.

Map:

It is located at 53° 26′ 9″ N, 9° 19′ 3″ W.

Ireland was first mapped in the 1840s. These original maps are available online.

Eighterard

Below is a link to the Ordnance Survey of Ireland website. It displays the original OS map that was created in the 1840s.

Eighterard

Information from Google Maps:

You can use this link to find this townland on Google Maps.

Google Maps

Information from the National Monuments Service:

You can use this link to view a map of archaeological features. This link brings you to a website wherein you will have to search for your townland.

Archaeological map from the National Monuments Service

Link to Townlands.ie Website

http://www.townlands.ie/galway/moycullen/kilcummin/oughterard-ed/eighterard/

Galway Library Website

http://places.galwaylibrary.ie/asp/fullresult.asp?id=52335

 

This page was added on 14/02/2016.

Comments about this page

  • A fantastic source of information. This website has the most comprehensive explanation of the Tithe Applotment Books that I have seen. I had also been looking for a list of Church parishes in the area. Thank you.

    By Mary (16/02/2019)

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