Treasa Nic Dhonncha
Bunscanniff is in the civil parish of Kilcummin. The civil parish corresponds with the following Church of Ireland parish of Kilcummin, Galway West. In general the civil parish and the Church of Ireland parish are the same as is the case in the Kilcummin Oughterard area.
Irish Form of Name: Bun Scainimh – Translation: bottom of the gravel.
Bunscanniff is in the Electoral Division of Letterfore, in Civil Parish of Kilcummin, in the Barony of Moycullen, in the County of Galway
Information from O’Donovan’s Field Name Books
Other Forms of the Name:
Bunskannif Boundary Surveyor
Bunskaniff Barony Cess Book
Bunscannif County Map
Bunskanna Rector of Kilcummin
Land good, but mountainous.
Contains 901¾ acres of land, about 60 acres of which are under tillage. The remainder is mountain bog, and 199¼ acres of water. Three bye roads pass through the townland. Loughtindala forms a part of its northern boundary with two large islands planted.
In the N. Western extremity of the parish, bounded on the N. by the parish of Moyrus and Shannafola townland on the E. by Lurgan and Arderrynagleragh. South by Derroogh North and West by Oorid.
Bunscanniff borders the following other townlands:
- Ardderrynagleragh to the east
- Derroogh North to the east
- Half Cartron to the west
- Lurgan to the east
- Oorid to the west
- Shannakeela to the west
- Shannaunnafeola to the north
BARONY Maigh Cuilinn/Moycullen
CIVIL PARISH Cill Chuimín/Kilcummin
TOWNLAND Bun Scainimh/Bunscanniff
The landlord was Thomas B. Martin, Esq., Ballinahinch. Thomas B. Martin was a member of the Martin of Ross Family as stated in the Landed Estates Database.
- Martin (Ross) – The Martin family were established beside Ross Lake in the barony of Moycullen, county Galway, from the late 16th century, where they purchased land from the O’Flahertys. They were Royalist supporters and were dispossessed of their property in the city of Galway by the Cromwellians. Robert Martin received a grant of 2,909 acres in the barony of Moycullen, by patent dated 21 Aug 1677. Jasper Martin of Ross, who died in 1700, had two sons Jasper and Richard, from whom descend the two branches of the family settled at Ross and Ballynahinch. Nicholas Martin, who died in 1811, married Elizabeth O’Hara, daughter of Robert O’Hara of Lenaboy, and according to Burke’s ”Landed Gentry”, a grandniece of James O’Hara, 2nd Baron Tyrawley. Their grandson, James Martin of Ross, had sixteen children from his two marriages. His daughter, Maud, married H. Callwell and they were the parents of the author, J. M. Callwell. The youngest daughter of James Martin was Violet Florence Martin of the well known literary team Somerville and Ross. The Martins of Ross owned 5,767 acres in county Galway in the 1870s. They advertised the sale of their estate in the Landed Estates’ Court in May 1885.
- Martin (Ballynahinch) – A branch of the Anglo Norman family of Martin, one of the Tribes of Galway, was granted the O’Flaherty lands in the Connemara region in the mid 17th century. This family were a junior branch of the Martins of Ross and under the Acts of Settlement were granted vast estates in counties Galway, Mayo, Roscommon, Clare and Sligo. By a patent dated 1698 they were confirmed in the possession of their Connemara estate known as the Manor of Claremount by King William. The Westport Estate Papers document the sale of over 27,000 acres in the baronies of Moycullen and Ballynahinch by the trustees for the sale of Colonel John Browne’s estate to John Edwards for Richard Martin in 1699. The early generations of Martins lived at Birch Hall and Dangan, in the townland of Oranhill, parish of Rahoon, near Galway city. Richard Martin, better known as ‘Humanity Dick’, was the first member of the family to be reared as a Protestant. He was a famous duellist and founded the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Ballynahinch Castle was built in the centre of his estate. His son Thomas Martin died in 1847 during the Famine and Thomas’s only daughter and heir, Mary Laetita, inherited a heavily encumbered estate. She married her cousin, Arthur Gonne Bell, and died in New York in 1850. The Martin estates were offered for sale in two sections in 1849. Their property close to Galway town included Dangan, Corcullen, Bushypark and Killeen. Their Connemara estate was acquired by the Law Life Assurance Society in 1852, to whom it was heavily mortgaged. In 1853 the estate of almost 200,000 acres was surveyed by Thomas Colville Scott for a prospective buyer. Richard Martin, second son of Richard ‘Humanity Dick’ Martin of Ballynahinch, is recorded as holding five townlands in the parish of Killannin, barony of Moycullen, county Galway, at the time of Griffith’s Valuation although he emigrated to Canada in 1833. He was also recorded as the occupier of Clareville, a Martin home in the village of Oughterard. Many of his descendants still reside in Canada. http://www.martinhistory.net/
The Tithe Applotment Books
About the Records
Tithes were a tax on agricultural produce which was payable by the occupiers of agricultural land. They were the main source of income for the parish clergy of the Church of Ireland (the largest Protestant church and the church established by law). However, in many parishes a large part of the tithes were ‘appropriate’, which meant that they were payable to a bishop, cathedral chapter or other ecclesiastical recipient, or were ‘impropriate’, which generally meant that they were payable to a local landowner. The parishes used in the Tithe Applotment Books are civil or Church of Ireland parishes, which often differ in name and territory from Catholic parishes, Acts of Parliament of 1823 and 1832 provided for the conversion of tithes into a fixed charge on land, and specified the average price of wheat or oats in the parish in the seven years before 1821 as the basis on which the tithes would be calculated. They also extended the application of tithes to pasture, where previously they had been levied only on tillage.
This change in the law resulted in the valuation of individual holdings in almost all parishes containing agricultural land, in order to assess the portion of the tithes for which each occupier of land would be liable. The apportionment was recorded for each Church of Ireland parish in a Tithe Composition Applotment Book. The information was collected and the amounts were calculated by two Parochial Commissioners, one of whom was appointed by the cess-payers of the parish and the other by the relevant Diocese of the Church of Ireland. This procedure was carried out in over 2,500 parishes between the years 1823 and 1837.
The Tithe Applotment Books are in a variety of formats, from a few pages sewn together to elaborately bound volumes. In most cases they are written in manuscript throughout, although some consist of manuscript entries on printed questionnaires. The information in the books is broadly uniform and generally includes at least the name of occupier; the size of holding, the valuation and the tithe payable. In some cases more detailed information is provided. Some volumes have maps and most have certificates and correspondence attached.
The sub-divisions of the parish were recorded. Some of these subdivisions, such as ploughlands, ceased to be in official use after the six inch survey of the Ordnance Survey was completed in the 1840s. Only productive land was subject to tithe, and the books usually distinguish between this tithable land and untithable land such as roads or mountains. Tithable land was in some cases classified by quality, and a money value was given to each class. In some cases the proportion of tithe payable to the rector, vicar or lay proprietor of the tithes was set out. The column for observations was sometimes completed, with information about commonage, for example.
There are a number of other points that should be noted. The acreages given in the Tithe Applotment Books are in Irish or Plantation measure, which is 1.62 times larger than statute measure. Only occupiers of land at the time of the tithe composition are recorded, so not all heads of households living in a parish at the time are included. Only rural areas are systematically covered, although inhabitants of towns who held plots of cultivable land are included. The equivalent tax in urban areas, Minister’s Money, has left few records.
The Tithe Applotment Books are an important source of information for a wide variety of researchers of pre-Famine Ireland. They provide the first surviving national list of the occupiers of land, and are used by genealogists as a partial substitute for returns of the 1821 and 1831 censuses of population, which were destroyed in 1922. They also record information on the quality of land, and provide information on pre-Ordnance Survey territorial divisions, some of which were not recognised after the 1840s.
The National Archives hold the original Tithe Applotment Books only for the twenty-six counties of the Republic of Ireland. The books for the six counties of Northern Ireland are held in the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland in Belfast. (http://titheapplotmentbooks.nationalarchives.ie/search/tab/aboutmore.jsp)
William Flynn had 6 acres of land, 2 acres of 2nd quality land with a fee of 1s and 4 acres of 3rd quality with a fee of 6d.
Information from the Down Survey Website:
The Down Survey website will tell you who owned this townland in 1641 (pre Cromwell) and in 1671 (post Cromwell).
Griffith’s Valuation (1850s)
In Griffiths Valuation the area is 1102 acres 2 roods 10 perches with a land value of £15 0s 0d, a building value of £3 10s 0d and the total value is £18 10s 0d. Area of water was 109 acres 3 roods 17 perches.
Occupiers of the Land
The occupiers of the land at this time were:
Isidore Lynch and a second landowner named Peter King.
The Landlord or immediate lessors was Directors of the Law Life Assurance Co.
Ownership of Land and Property
Isidore Lynch and Peter King owned a house, outhouse and land each.
The total annual valuation of rateable property in Bunscanniff came to £18 10s 0d
Land Rates: Isidore Lynch was rated at £5 0s 0d while Peter King was rated at £10 0s 0d.
Buidling Rates: Isidore Lynch was rated at £1 10s 0d and Peter King was rated at £2 0s 0d.
Out Offices and Land
The out office was a farm building, a cow house, piggery or barn. The land was very poor and sterile and people were always poverty-stricken. At this time most tenants were trying to eke out a living on 5acres or less and a farmer needed at least 15.3 acres to survive.
Poor Law Union Ireland
In Ireland the Poor Relief Act of 1838 divided into districts or “unions” in which the local taxable inhabitants were to be financially responsible for all paupers in the area. In 1898 the Poor Law Union was adopted as the basic administrative division in place of the civil parish and barony. Further subdivision into 828 registration districts and 3,751 district electoral divisions followed. Townlands were not arranged according to these divisions with parish and barony retained as a means to make comparisons with records gathered before 1898.
The 1838 Act
The main provisions of the 1838 Act were:
- The extension of the existing Poor Law Commissioners’ powers to Ireland, with the appointment of Assistant Commissioners who were to implement the Act in Ireland.
- The division of the country into Poor Law Unions based on Irish electoral divisions which were themselves made up from townlands.
- The creation of a Board of Guardians for each Union, two-thirds of whom were to be elected, the other third to be appointed ex officio.
- The setting up of a workhouse in each Union.
- The collection of a local poor-rate to finance the system.
- Assistance for emigration.
Initially, 130 Unions were created, based upon 2,049 electoral divisions. The divisions were composed of townlands, a peculiarly Irish unit, traditionally of 120 Irish acres in area. (Between 1848 and 1850, an additional 33 Unions were created by subdividing and reorganizing the boundaries of some existing Unions, particularly in the west of the country.
Boards of Guardians were elected annually on 25th March. Only rate-payers were eligible for election, which effectively disenfranchised most of the native Irish who were usually tenants at this time. Rate-payers were allowed between one and six votes depending on the size of a valuation of their property.
A townland is one of the smallest land divisions in Ireland. They range in size from a few acres to thousands of acres. Many are Gaelic in origin, but some came into existence after the Norman invasion of 1169. Bunscanniff is a townland and some other placenames in or near this townland are:
- Bunmore Island (island)
Bun Mór – great base or bottom. Bunmore is in the Southern end of Oorid Lough. Bunmore Island is in the Townland of Bunscanniff and the parish of Moyrus.
- Bunskannive Bridge (bridge)
Bun Scainimhe – bottom of the gravel
Bunskannive Bridge is on the parish boundary between the parishes of Moycullen and Moyrus. It is in the townland of Bunscanniff and the parish of Moyrus.
- Derreennacreeva (trigonometrical station)
Doirín na Craoibhe – little Derry or oak wood of the bush or branching tree. A hill in the middle of a green flat has a Trigl. Station on it. Derreennacreeva is in the townland of Bunscanniff and parish of Kilcummin.
- Loughderryhallagh (lake)
Loch Doire Shalaigh – lake of the dirty Derry or oak wood. A small lough containing 3¼ acres on the boundary between Bunskannif and Derrue townlands.
- Loughderryhollagh (lake)
Loch Doire Shalaigh – lake of the dirty oakwood. A small lough on the boundary of Derrough N. and Bunskanniff.
- Loughshindilla (lake)
Loch a t-Sindile – lake of the beetle. A large lough containing 163¾ acres with 7 islands, all belonging to Bunskanniff, the 2 large islands are planted. Situated in the mountain, it is on the boundary between Bunskannif, Lurgan and Shannafola townlands.
- Shindilla (wood)
Sindile – a beetle (mallet). A herd lives in the wood who minds the wood. A very handsome wood which grows on an island in Loughatindilla by the road side from Oughterard to Clifden. It is Situated on the boundary between Shindilla and Bunskannif townlands.
Population & Census Information:
People who lived here:
You can retrieve a list of people who lived in this townland from 1827 to 1911. This list is compiled from the following resources.
- The Tithe Applotment Books
- Griffith’s Valuation
- 1901 Census
- 1911 Census
1841 3 houses with 34 people
1851 2 houses with 19 people.
1861 2 houses with 17 people.
1871 4 houses with 23 people.
1881 5 houses (all inhabited) with 36 people (21 males, 15 females) with 6 outbuildings. The valuation of Houses & Land in 1881 was £17 10s 0d.
1891 5 houses (4 inhabited) with 35 people (21 males, 14 females) with 8 outbuildings. The valuation of Houses & Land in 1881 was £17 10s 0d.
1901 Census Bunscanniff
This is a return of the members of the family, their Visitors, Boarders, Servants who slept or abode in their house on the night of Sunday March 31st 1901 in Bunscanniff.
There were 5 houses listed in the Townland of Bunscanniff, 4 of which were inhabited on the night of the census, house No. 2 is listed as uninhabited. The people were all Roman Catholic. They were all born in County Galway with the exception of 5 people listed as lodgers in house No. 5 who were all born in County Mayo.
Farm Buildings and Out Offices
There were a total of 8 farm buildings and out offices. 4 stables, 2 cow houses, 1 piggery and 1 barn.
Description of the Houses
Class of House: The class of house depended on the materials used in the roof, walls, number of rooms and number of front windows. A 1st class house was considered the highest standard.
Walls of the houses: The walls were of stone, brick, and concrete or of mud, wood or other perishable material. The houses in Bunscanniff were built of stone, brick or concrete. There were no mud cabins.
Roofs: Roofs were of slate, iron, tiles, thatch, wood or other perishable material. The roofs of houses were of thatch, wood or perishable material. They were most likely thatched
All the houses are listed as Private Dwellings. House No 2 was not occupied but the other 4 houses were occupied by one family. The people listed as the head of the family were also listed as the lawful Landholder of the property with the exception of house No. 5 (see below). There was a population of 33 with 20 males and 13 females residing in the village.
House & Building Return
Out Offices & Farm Steadings
House No 1. (9 occupants)
Anthony Lynch aged 75 was the head of the family. He lived with his wife Bridget aged 60. Anthony was a farmer. He had 2 stables, 1 cow house and 1 barn. Living with him were his sons Anthony aged 26, Morris aged 24, and Martin Joe aged 16, his daughters Delia aged 20 and Magdaline aged 17, all are listed as unmarried. His brother Martin Lynch, a farmer, aged 60 also lived in the house as did his nephew Peter Lynch aged 22. The family could read and write with the exception of Peter Lynch who could not read and is listed as a car driver. They all spoke Irish and English. They lived in a class 2 house with 3 front windows. 9 people occupied 5 available rooms.
House No, 2 (0 occupants)
The Landholder of this house is Anthony Lynch. It was a class 3 house with two three or four rooms and no front windows.
House No.3 (12 occupants)
John Lynch aged 60 was the head of the family. He lived with his wife Anne aged 55. John was a farmer. He had a stable a cow house and a piggery. Living with him were his sons Patrick, a road contractor aged 26 and Isidore E, listed as farmer’s son aged 20, his daughters Bridie M aged 17, Mary J aged 16, and Elizabeth A aged 15 listed as farmer’s daughters. Also living with him were his two nieces Annie M Kelly a dressmaker aged 20 and Margaret M Kelly aged 17, listed as a farmer’s daughter, his two nephews Patrick J Kelly aged 22 and John Kelly aged 20 both listed as farmer’s sons. Also in the house was Martin Conneely, a visitor aged 20 and listed a labourer. All could read and write except Anne Lynch. They all spoke Irish and English. They lived in a class 2 house with three front windows. 12 people occupied 3 available rooms.
House No. 4 (5 occupants)
Patrick Lynch aged 62 was the head of the family. He lived with his wife Anne whose age is not given. Patrick was a farmer. He lived with his sons Isadore aged 22, who was a Millsman, Michael aged 17 and Patk aged 15 both listed as farmer’s sons. The three sons are not married. The two youngest in the family could read and write the three eldest could not read. They all spoke Irish and English. They lived in a class 4 house with no front windows. 5 people occupied 1 available room.
House No. 5 (7 occupants)
Elizabeth Lynch aged 54 is listed as the head of the family on the House and Building Return Form but not the census form. A Norah Mullens is also listed as head of the family on this form. She is not listed as an occupant on the census form. Anthony Lynch is listed as the Lawful Landholder of the property. Elizabeth was a widow and a housekeeper. She lived with her Nephew John Lynch aged 13, a farmer’s son. She had 5 lodgers, all born in County Mayo. Norah Barrett aged 70 was a Dealer Bag Trade and a widow. Jane Mullen aged 20 was also a Dealer Bag Trade and a widow. Mic John aged 15 is listed as a C Scholar. Helen Mullen aged 9 and Joseph Mullen aged 5 were listed as scholars. Everyone is the house could read and write and spoke Irish and English. They lived in a class 3 house with 2 front windows. 7 people occupied 2 available rooms.
Census 1911 Bunscanniff
This is a return of the Members of families in Bunscanniff, their visitors, boarders and servants who slept or abode in the house on the night of Sunday the 2nd of April 1911.
Description of the Houses
All the houses in Bunscanniff were listed as private dwellings and were built of concrete or stone. The roofs of the houses were of wood, thatch or other perishable material. Most likely they were thatched. The heads of the families were listed as the landholders. One family lived in each property. The Class of the house depended on the material used in the roof, walls, number of rooms and number of front windows. Most of the houses came under “2’ in the census form meaning that there could be 2, 3, or 4, rooms in the house. One house came under ‘1’ which meant there was 1 room in the house.
One family lived in each of the 4 houses listed. They were all Roman Catholics and the head of the family was the landholder. There were a total of 13 people living in the village, 7 males and 6 females. There were a total of 13 farm buildings in the village. These were 3 stables, 4 cow houses, 2 calf houses, 3 piggeries and 1 barn.
House & Building Return
Out Offices & Farm Steadings
House No. 1 (3 occupants)
Peter Lynch aged 50 was the head of the family. Peter was a farmer and had 6 out offices, 2 stables, 1 cow house, 1 calf house, 1 piggery and 1 barn. He lived with his wife Bridget aged 48. They were married for 2 years and had no children. Also living in the house was Colman Delap aged 18. Colman is listed as a farm servant. All could read and write and spoke Irish and English. They lived in a class 2 house with 3 front windows. 3 people occupied 4 available rooms.
House No. 2 (3 occupants)
John Lynch aged 71 was the head of the family. John was a farmer and had 4 out houses, 1 stable, 1 cow house, 1 calf house and 1 piggery. John lived with his wife Anne aged 69. They were married 50 years and had 9 children born alive and 9 were still living. Neither John nor Anne could read or write and Anne only spoke Irish. They also lived with their son Patrick aged 35 listed as a labourer and their daughter Lizzie aged 21 listed as a seamstress, both were single. Patrick and Lizzie could read and write and spoke English and Irish. Patrick Mc Donagh aged 69 also lived in the house. He is listed as a servant in the column that indicated the relationship with the head of the family but his occupation is as a labourer. Patrick could not read or write and spoke Irish. They lived in a class 3 house with 2 front windows. 3 people occupied 2 available rooms.
House No. 3 (3 occupants)
Anne Lynch aged 66 was the head of the house. She was a farmer and had 2 out houses, a cow house and a piggery. Anne was widowed and had been married for 36 years. She had 6 children born alive and 5 were still living. Anne could not read or write and spoke Irish. She lived with her sons Isidore aged 38 and a farmer and Patrick aged 27 a labourer. Both Isidore and Patrick could read and write and spoke English and Irish. They were both single. They lived in a class 3 house with 2 front windows. 3 people occupied 2 available rooms.
House No. 4 (2 occupants)
Elizabeth Lynch aged 80 was the head of the house. Elizabeth was a farmer with 1 cow house. Elizabeth was widowed and had been married for 56 years and had no children. She could not read or write and spoke Irish. Also living in the house was Mary Fitz Patrick aged 46. Mary was a border and worked as a servant. Mary too was widowed and had been married for 13 years. She had 2 children born alive and 2 still living. She could not read or write and spoke Irish and English. They lived in a class 3 house with 1 front window. 2 people occupied 1 available room.
Church records of births, deaths and marriages:
Church records of births, deaths and marriages are available online at http://www.rootsireland.ie. To search these records, you will need to know the ‘church parish’ rather than the ‘civil parish’. (The civil parish is the pre-reformation parish and was frequently used as a unit of administration in the past.)
Bunscanniff is in the civil parish of Kilcummin.
This civil parish corresponds with the following Roman Catholic parish or parishes.
- Clonbern & Kilkerrin in Galway East.
- Carraroe in Galway West.
- Kilannin in Galway West.
- Kilcummin/Oughterard in Galway West.
- Rosmuc in Galway West.
Church of Ireland parish:
This civil parish corresponds with the following Church of Ireland parish.
- Kilcummin in Galway West.
In general, the civil parish and the Church of Ireland parish are the same, but, this is not always the case.
Original OS map of this area
Ireland was first mapped in the 1840s. These original maps are available online.
Original OS maps at the Ordnance Survey of Ireland website
Below is a link to the Ordnance Survey of Ireland website. It displays the original OS map that was created in the 1840s.
Information from Google Maps:
You can use this link to find this townland on Google Maps.
Information from the National Monuments Service:
You can use this link to view a map of archaeological features. This link brings you to a website wherein you will have to search for your townland.
Galway Library Website