Shannaunnafeóla

Antoinette Lydon

Shannaunnafeóla is in the civil parish of Kilcummin. The civil Parish corresponds with the following Church of Ireland parish of Kilcummin, Galway West. In general, the civil parish and the Church of Ireland parish are the same as is the case in the Kilcummin Oughterard area.

Irish Form of Name: Seanán na Feóla

Translation: old land of the flesh

Civil Parish: Kilcummin View all place names in this civil parish.

Shannaunnafeola is in the Electoral Division of Letterfore, in Civil Parish of Kilcummin, in the Barony of Moycullen, in the County of Galway

Other Forms of the Name with authority source (if provided) in italics:

Shannaunnafeóla

Seanán na Feóla

Shannanefeola Barony Cess Book

Shannafola Boundary Surveyor

Shanafola County Map

Shannanafeola Local

Comment: Seanán dimin. of Sean

Description:

Land very mountainous has a ruin of an old house in it. Contains 2,833¼ acres about 40 a. of which are arable, the remainder is mountain pasture and contains also 55¼ acres of water.

Situation:

Bounded on the north by the parish and barony of Ross, on the West by the parish of Moyrus and Barony of Ballinahinch.

This is a list of townlands that share a border with this townland.

Some other placenames in or near this townland are…

Proprietor

Arthur French St. George of Tyrone House.

Information on the owner’s family from the Landed Estates Database.

Arthur French St. George is a member of the French (Tyrone) family.

The St.George estate was centred on the house at Tyrone, parish of Drumacoo, barony of Dunkellin, built about 1779. This had originally been a French estate but the family assumed the title of St.George in 1774 due to inheritence from the St.George family of Hatley Manor, county Leitrim. In the 1830s A.F. St. George owned Tyrone House and Kilcolgan Castle, his agent was J. O’Hara. Wm. Griffith of Dublin also acted as an agent for the St. George estate. Arthur French St. George is described as a resident proprietor in 1824. In the early 19th century the St. Georges also owned large amounts of land in the baronies of Moycullen, Ballynahinch and Clare, which they advertised for sale in the early 1850s. Land in the barony of Clare had been acquired through Arthur French’s marriage with a Kirwan in the late 17th century. A portion of the St. George estate, situated in the barony of Longford, was offered for sale in the Encumbered Estates court in November 1853. In 1870s the family owned 15,777 acres in county Galway. By the early 1900s, however, some of the estate had been sold and the house at Tyrone had been left empty for long periods. In 1914 over 3000 acres of an estate descibed as St. George and Concannon was vested in the Congested Districts Board. Many members of the family are buried in a church-style mausoleoum in the cemetery at Drumacoo

 Down’s Survey

The Down Survey is a mapped survey. Using the Civil Survey as a guide, teams of surveyors, mainly former soldiers, were sent out under Petty’s direction to measure every townland to be forfeited to soldiers and adventurers. The resulting maps, made at a scale of 40 perches to one inch (the modern equivalent of 1:50,000), were the first systematic mapping of a large area on such a scale attempted anywhere. The primary purpose of these maps was to record the boundaries of each townland and to calculate their areas with great precision. The maps are also rich in other detail showing churches, roads, rivers, castles, houses and fortifications. Most towns are represented pictorially and the cartouches, the decorative titles, of each map in many cases reflect a specific characteristic of each barony. (http://downsurvey.tcd.ie)

Townland of SHANNAUNNAFEOLA

Down Survey Name: Shannavagha

1641 Owner(s): McDonnogh, Owen McRory (Catholic)

1670 Owner(s): Blake, Andrew (Protestant)

County: Galway

Barony: Muckullin

Parish: Killcumyn

Profitable land: 54 plantation acres

Forfeited: 54 plantation acres

The down survey website will tell you who owned this townland in 1641 (pre Cromwell) and in 1671 (post Cromwell).

Down Survey Website

The Tithe Applotment Books

About the Records

Tithes were a tax on agricultural produce which was payable by the occupiers of agricultural land. They were the main source of income for the parish clergy of the Church of Ireland (the largest Protestant church and the church established by law). However, in many parishes a large part of the tithes was ‘appropriate’, which meant that they were payable to a bishop, cathedral chapter or other ecclesiastical recipient, or were ‘impropriate’, which generally meant that they were payable to a local landowner. The parishes used in the Tithe Applotment Books are civil or Church of Ireland parishes, which often differ in name and territory from Catholic parishes, Acts of Parliament of 1823 and 1832 provided for the conversion of tithes into a fixed charge on land, and specified the average price of wheat or oats in the parish in the seven years before 1821 as the basis on which the tithes would be calculated. They also extended the application of tithes to pasture, where previously they had been levied only on tillage.

This change in the law resulted in the valuation of individual holdings in almost all parishes containing agricultural land, in order to assess the portion of the tithes for which each occupier of land would be liable. The apportionment was recorded for each Church of Ireland parish in a Tithe Composition Applotment Book. The information was collected and the amounts were calculated by two Parochial Commissioners, one of whom was appointed by the cess-payers of the parish and the other by the relevant Diocese of the Church of Ireland. This procedure was carried out in over 2,500 parishes between the years 1823 and 1837.

The Tithe Applotment Books are in a variety of formats, from a few pages sewn together to elaborately bound volumes. In most cases they are written in manuscript throughout, although some consist of manuscript entries on printed questionnaires. The information in the books is broadly uniform and generally includes at least the name of occupier; the size of holding, the valuation and the tithe payable. In some cases, more detailed information is provided. Some volumes have maps and most have certificates and correspondence attached.

The sub-divisions of the parish were recorded. Some of these subdivisions, such as plough lands, ceased to be in official use after the six-inch survey of the Ordnance Survey was completed in the 1840s. Only productive land was subject to tithe, and the books usually distinguish between this tithable land and untithable land such as roads or mountains. Tithable land was in some cases classified by quality, and a money value was given to each class. In some cases, the proportion of tithe payable to the rector, vicar or lay proprietor of the tithes was set out. The column for observations was sometimes completed, with information about commonage, for example.

There are a number of other points that should be noted. The acreages given in the Tithe Applotment Books are in Irish or Plantation measure, which is 1.62 times larger than statute measure. Only occupiers of land at the time of the tithe composition are recorded, so not all heads of households living in a parish at the time are included. Only rural areas are systematically covered, although inhabitants of towns who held plots of cultivable land are included. The equivalent tax in urban areas, Minister’s Money, has left few records.

The Tithe Applotment Books are an important source of information for a wide variety of researchers of pre-Famine Ireland. They provide the first surviving national list of the occupiers of land, and are used by genealogists as a partial substitute for returns of the 1821 and 1831 censuses of population, which were destroyed in 1922. They also record information on the quality of land, and provide information on pre-Ordnance Survey territorial divisions, some of which were not recognized after the 1840s.

The National Archives hold the original Tithe Applotment Books only for the twenty-six counties of the Republic of Ireland. The books for the six counties of Northern Ireland are held in the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland in Belfast. (http://titheapplotmentbooks.nationalarchives.ie/search/tab/aboutmore.jsp)

Thos Cottingham had 1006 acres of land; 3 acres of 2nd quality land with a fee of 1s per acre, 3 acres of 3rd quality with a fee of 6d per acre, 200 acres of 4th quality land with a fee of ½d per acre & 800 acres of 5th quality land with a fee of ⅛d per acre.

The Tithes were payable to Richard Martin Esq. Reverend James Daly & Reverend John Wilson.

http://titheapplotmentbooks.nationalarchives.ie/search/tab/results.jsp?county=Galway&parish=Kilcummin&townland=Shannaunnafeola&search=Search&sort=last_name_sort

http://titheapplotmentbooks.nationalarchives.ie/reels/tab//004587459/004587459_00443.pdf

Griffith Valuation 1855

In Griffith’s Valuation the area in Shannaunnafeóla was a total of 2888 acres, 2 rood & 1 perch.  2833 acres 1 rood & 5 perch of land & buildings. 55 acres 0 rood & 36 perch of Water. The total annual ratable valuation was £15-10s-0d.

Occupiers: Henry Hodgson

Immediate Lessor: “in fee”, meaning that the occupier is also the legal owner of the property.

http://www.askaboutireland.ie/griffith-valuation/index.xml?action=doNameSearch&PlaceID=559081

View the heads of households in the townland at this time.

Poor Law Union Ireland

In Ireland the Poor Relief Act of 1838 divided into districts or “unions” in which the local taxable inhabitants were to be financially responsible for all paupers in the area. In 1898 the Poor Law Union was adopted as the basic administrative division in place of the civil parish and barony. Further subdivision into 828 registration districts and 3,751 district electoral divisions followed. Townlands were not arranged according to these divisions with parish and barony retained as a means to make comparisons with records gathered before 1898.

The 1838 Act

The main provisions of the 1838 Act were:

  • The extension of the existing Poor Law Commissioners’ powers to Ireland, with the appointment of Assistant Commissioners who were to implement the Act in Ireland.
  • The division of the country into Poor Law Unions based on Irish electoral divisions which were made up from townlands.
  • The creation of a Board of Guardians for each Union, two-thirds of whom were to be elected, the other third to be appointed ex officio.
  • The setting up of a workhouse in each Union.
  • The collection of a local poor-rate to finance the system.
  • Assistance for emigration.

Initially, 130 Unions were created, based upon 2,049 electoral divisions. The divisions were composed of townlands, a peculiarly Irish unit, traditionally of 120 Irish acres in area. (Between 1848 and 1850, subdividing and reorganizing the boundaries of some existing Unions, particularly in the west of the country created an additional 33 Unions.

Boards of Guardians were elected annually on 25th March. Only ratepayers were eligible for election, which effectively disenfranchised most of the native Irish who were usually tenants at this time. Ratepayers were allowed between one and six votes depending on the size of a valuation of their property.

What is a townland?

A townland is one of the smallest land divisions in Ireland. They range in size from a few acres to thousands of acres. Many are Gaelic in origin, but some came into existence after the Norman invasion of 1169

Shannaunnafeóla is a townland.

Population & Census Information

People who lived here:

You can retrieve a list of people who lived in this townland from 1827 to 1911. This list is compiled from the following resources.

  • The Tithe Applotment Books
  • Griffith’s Valuation
  • 1901 Census
  • 1911 Census

List of nineteenth century and early twentieth century inhabitants of this townland.

1841-1891 Census

1841 – 2 houses with 15 people

1851 – 1 house with 7 people

1861 – 3 houses with 26 people

1871 – 3 houses with 9 people

1881 – 2 houses (2 inhabited) with 13 people (8 males, 5 females). There were 1 outbuilding.

The valuation of Houses & Land in 1881 was £15 10s 0d.

1891 – 2 houses (2 inhabited) with 10 people (5 males, 5 females). There were 3 outbuildings.

The valuation of Houses & Land in 1891 was £15 10s 0d.

1901 Census

This is a return of the members of the family, visitors, boarders or servants who slept or abode in their house on the night of Sunday March 31st 1901 in Shannaunnafeóla.

There were 2 houses listed in the Townland of Shannaunnafeóla. The people were all Roman Catholics and they were born in Co. Galway. 19 people lived in Shannaunnafeóla (10 males and 9 females) in the townland. There were 4 farm buildings and out offices which included stables & cow houses.

Enumerators Extract

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000840429/

House & Building Returns

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000840430/

Out Office & Farm Steadings

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000840431/

House 1

Patrick Keane aged 54 was head of the family; married to Julia aged 44. They lived with their children Thos (Thomas) aged 15, Julia aged 12, Norah aged 10, Sarah aged 9, Patk (Patrick) aged 7, Kate aged 5 & Dennis aged 1.

Patrick was a herd; Thos, Julia, Norah, Sarah, Patk & Kate were scholars and Dennis was a herd’s son. Patrick, Julia, Patk, Kate & Dennis could not read. Thos, Julia, Norah & Sarah could read and write. The entire family spoke Irish & English. The family was Roman Catholic.

They lived on a 3rd house with 2 rooms and 2 front windows. They had a stable & a cow house. This was a private dwelling.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Galway/Letterfore/Shannaunnafeola/1394512/

House 2

James Walsh aged 45 was head of the family; married to Bridget aged 40. They lived with their children Patrick aged 12, Michael aged 10, Bridget aged 8, John aged 6, Anthony aged 4, Mary aged 3, Thomas aged 8 months and James’ mother Mary aged 90.

James was a herd; Patrick, Michael, Bridget & John were scholars; Anthony & Thomas were herd’s sons and Mary was a herd’s daughter.  James, Bridget, Anthony, Mary, Thomas & Mary (grandmother) could not read. Patrick, Michael, Bridget & John could read and write. James, Bridget, Patrick, Michael, Bridget, John & Anthony spoke Irish & English. Mary (grandmother) spoke only Irish. The family was Roman Catholic.

They lived on a 3rd house with 2 rooms and 2 front windows. They had a stable & a cow house. This was a private dwelling.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Galway/Letterfore/Shannaunnafeola/1394513/

Census 1911

This is a return of the Members of the families in Shannaunnafeóla, their visitors, boarders and servants who slept or abode in the house on the night of Sunday 2nd April 1911.

There was 1 house listed in the Townland of Shannaunnafeóla. Of the people living in Shannaunnafeóla all 8 (6 males/2 females) were Roman Catholics.

People that lived in Shannaunnafeóla were born included Co. Galway. There were a total of 4 farm buildings and out offices which included stable, cow house, calf house & piggery.

Enumerators Extract

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai002435055/

House & Building Return

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai002435057/

Out Offices & Farm Steadings

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai002435059/

House 1

Martin Keane aged 65 was head of the family; married to Bridget aged 60. They lived with their children Tom aged 15, Mary aged 14, Michael aged 10, Pat aged 8, Martin aged 5 & Denis aged 4.

Martin was a farmer. Martin & Bridget could not read; they spoke only Irish. Tom could read; he spoke Irish & English. Mary could read & write and spoke Irish & English. Michael & Pat could not read; they spoke Irish & English. Martin & Denis could not read. The family was Roman Catholic.

They lived on a 3rd house with 2 rooms and 2 front windows. They had a stable, cow house, calf house & piggery. This was a private dwelling.

http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/Galway/Letterfore/Shannaunnafeola/912206/

Church records of births, deaths and marriages:

Church records of births, deaths and marriages are available online at http://www.rootsireland.ie. To search these records, you will need to know the ‘church parish’ rather than the ‘civil parish’. (The civil parish is the pre-reformation parish and was frequently used as a unit of administration in the past.)

Shannaunnafeóla is in the civil parish of Kilcummin.

Roman Catholic parishes:

This civil parish corresponds with the following Roman Catholic parish or parishes.

  • Carraroe
  • Kilannin
  • Kilcummin/Oughterard
  • Rosmuc

Church of Ireland parishes:

This civil parish corresponds with the following Church of Ireland parish.

  • Kilcummin

In general, the civil parish and the Church of Ireland parish are the same, but, this is not always the case.

Maps

It is located at 53° 28′ 21″ N, 9° 34′ 43″ W.

Original OS map of this area. Ireland was first mapped in the 1840s. These original maps are available online.

Shannaunnafeóla

Original OS maps at the Ordnance Survey of Ireland website.

Below is a link to the Ordnance Survey of Ireland website. It displays the original OS map that was created in the 1840s.

Shannaunnafeóla

Information from Google Maps.

You can use this link to find this townland on Google Maps

Google Maps

Information from the National Monuments Service.

You can use this link to view a map of archaeological features. This link brings you to a website wherein you will have to search for your townland.

Archaeological map from the National Monuments Service

Galway Library Website

http://places.galwaylibrary.ie/place/53113

Townlands.ie Website

https://www.townlands.ie/galway/moycullen/kilcummin/letterfore/shannaunnafeola/

This page was added on 28/07/2016.

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